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Additional resources for Wheeled Vehicle and Ridden Animals in the Ancient Near East (Asian Studies)
ThIS species can also were current at the moment and previous (d. p. 25) m easte rn Anatolia, to pass judgement on by means of a primary phalanx pointed out at Norsuntepe in a context it seems that of EB III (ca 2300-2000 B. C. ). J7 Very lately (1978) a couple of equids laid out as a group in a tomb of the Akkadian ~eriod, which additionally contained a human burial and maybe steel parts from a car, h~ve been exc~vat ed at inform Madhur within the Hamrin salvage quarter in east ern MesopotamIa: The continues to be were tentatively pointed out via the archaeologists as these of h emiones, yet definite identity needs to watch for thorough exam by way of a palaeozoologist. P From Umm al-Hafryat, supra n. I. Ducos has it sounds as if retra cted his ~entative, initial identity (1968; d . Zarins 19. seventy six, 1~8, n. 2). Horse and . horse-ass hybn~s, despite the fact that, pointed out through IJzereef 1976, 31f. (manuscript kindly lent to us). web site it sounds as if inhabited 24th-20th cent . B . C. d. van Loon esp ' ,. 1969b and 1975. 17 Boessneck and . von ~~n Driesch 1976, eighty two, 86 (this bone "ganz vereinzelt;" in EB III cont ext) . . p: horse t ooth pointed out via G. M. Allen at Nuzi (Gazur) in E . Mesopotamia, it seems that in Akkadian context, d. Starr 1937-39, 25, 492f. 18 younger, T. C. Jr. 1978; additionally letters of Aug. 15 and Sept. 15, 1978. IS sixteen 42 LATER 3rd MILLENNIUM B. C. LATER 3rd MILLENNIUM B. C. Representational proof forty three h~mio? e, a hybrid, or a selected kind of ass. 24 it really is explicitly linked to cars m just a couple of texts. Others point out its use in agriculture, together with ploughing. ~he latter use will be striking with regards to horse (d. p. 28). The Drehem texts checklist general numbers of the animal from numerous assets. w one other time period, AN~E. 21. 21, very very likely denotes actual horse. it sounds as if in Dr III texts and probably a little bit previous, in addition to in a couple of literary ones, the extant types of which date to the subsequent interval. w between those are models of the recognized ~ymn A . of Shulgi, King or Ur, the place it's a synonym for AN~E. KUR. RA, that's f~und within the regular model of the hymn and denotes horse (see below). within the previous texts AN~E. 21. 21 happens in very small numbers by means of comparability with different equids with which it truly is indexed, and turns out to were hugely prized. The harness parts pointed out with it on one capsule may well recommend using or using or maybe breeding. F , Equids are represented in quite a few media, the place they seem as draught or using animals, remoted, or in mythological contexts. regardless of common makes an attempt to take action, it has hardly ever been attainable to figure out with sure bet the precise equid meant. P Textual facts Equids are frequently pointed out in texts from southern Mesopotamia and Elam. For the Dr III interval the elevated quantity of administrative texts, fairly from Drehem close to Nippur, supplies broad info on breeding, feeding and use, and mentions team of workers linked to those actions. numerous assorted phrases are used, a few showing for the 1st time and, as sooner than, their translations as touching on particular different types of equids or their capabilities are tricky.